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Types of Walls in Building Construction

A wall is a structural element that creates safety and security by dividing a space into two portions. The two primary types of walls are outer walls and inner walls.

The house is protected by outside walls, which are divided into the required number of rooms by interior walls. The term “external wall” is also used to describe outer walls, whereas “internal wall” or “partition wall” is used to describe inside walls.

The materials that can be used to build walls nowadays include glass, wood, plywood, cinder blocks, steel sheets, and many others. As a result, the wall can be divided into a number of categories based on the material used to build it.

Load Bearing Wall:

As the name suggests, walls rather than columns serve as the structural support for the entire building. Loads from the slab are typically carried to the beams, columns and then the foundation. Load-bearing walls, whether on the inside or outside, are those that support the weight of the complete building, including the self-weight of structural components. The wall’s load-bearing form is constructed on a strip footing.

Drop Wall:

This sort of wall cannot support floor or roof loads above it, hence it cannot support any weight of the building. The best illustration of this inside the building is the partition walls, which are only intended to divide rooms and have no structural stability. The non-load-bearing wall can be altered without having an effect on the building’s framework. Filling walls and drop walls are other names for non-load-bearing walls. Typically, these walls are 100 to 125 mm thick.

Reinforcing Wall:

The soil can be confined to a slope that would not typically keep it stable on a steep or vertical slope due to retaining walls, which operate as a supporting feature. The primary objective of building a retaining wall at a certain location depends on the requirements; it is to hold soil behind it. Gravity retaining walls, reinforced concrete retaining walls, Stone-made retaining walls, earthen retaining walls, and brick masonry retaining walls are some of the several types.

Shear Wall:

The earth is kept in place by constructing a shear wall around the lift pit, water sump, or stairwell. Any shear wall must withstand two pressures, such as soil pressure and wind pressure or water pressure and wind pressure. Shear walls are utilised to counteract these forces. If there is an earthquake, a windstorm, or any other lateral load, these walls can withstand the lateral force applied to the structure. Construction methods that provide directional rigidity include the use of concrete or masonry. The design and construction of shear walls are straightforward and they are symmetrically positioned to reduce the damaging effects of twisting. The shear wall has no problems staying in place.

Brick Masonry Wall:

Due to the versatility and durability of brick, brick masonry walls have been used in building construction for thousands of years with very slight modifications. Its construction included the use of clay bricks that had been burned, sand-lime bricks (calcium silicate bricks), concrete bricks, fly ash clay bricks, and firebrick. Masonry is used to bind the bricks of the wall together. The brick wall could be 20 cm or 10 cm thick. The inside walls are 10 cm thick, while the external walls are 20 cm thick.

Chamber Wall:

The hollow wall is composed of two distinct wythes. The wythes are constructed using masonry. These two walls are referred to as internal leaves and outer leaves. Another name for this kind of construction is a hollow wall. They lower their weights onto the base. They function similarly to soundproofing. A hollow wall offers greater thermal insulation than a solid wall since the area is airtight and prevents heat transfer. Compared to solid walls, they flow heat at a rate that is 50% higher. Economically speaking, it is less expensive than other solid walls. It has fire resistance. The cavity wall serves as a noise barrier.

Rubble Stone Masonry Wall:

When building a rubble stone masonry wall, large stones are roughly gathered together to bond so that the stones and the regular arrangement of stones extend along with the thickness of the wall.

The several types of masonry walls include:

  • Random-looking masonry
  • First-type coursed rubble masonry
  • Masonry made of coursed rubble of the second type

Core Wall:

This wall is constructed starting at the building’s foundation and extends to the same height as the building. This wall functions as a column and a shear wall. In terms of resisting lateral external pressures like wind, earthquakes, and other natural calamities, it provides the same function as the shear wall. It is carefully constructed in the building’s centre to withstand the torsion effect.

Parapet Wall:

A parapet is the topmost stretch of a wall that rises above the roof line and provides some degree of protection for objects like balconies, roofs, gutters, and house walkways. To create the appropriate façade, a parapet wall can be shaped in a variety of ways and used for numerous reasons.

Precast Wall:

Precast Wall Concrete is poured into a reusable wall mould or form, which is then used to create precast concrete walls. The concrete is then allowed to cure in a controlled environment before being transported securely to the construction site and lifted into position. Precast wall construction is mostly done to speed up the building process. These partitions or facades are made to resist parallel loads even if they do not support any weight.

Strong Brick Wall:

This kind of wall is designed to withstand tensile pressures placed on it. Both horizontal and vertical reinforcement is necessary along the entire wall. There are numerous uses for hoop iron reinforcement.

Boundary Wall:

A boundary wall is a cast-in-place or prefabricated building with a variety of forms that acts as a wall or fencing for immovable property. It can also be described as a wall, fence, or enclosure of a building constructed on or near a cadastral property border with any additional security-related constructions attached to or placed on top of the boundary wall, such as spikes, barbed wire, razor wire or electric fences.

Decorative Wall:

Brick or stone can be used to build this wall. The most well-known veneered wall material is brick. Only one wythe makes up the wall’s whole thickness. Insulation inside walls became standard after it was made required by building regulations. Building veneered walls takes less time than building solid walls and weighs little. 

Faced Wall:

It is a wall made of masonry facing and backing made of two distinct materials that have been joined so they can function equally well under pressure. The fronted wall is easy to install and provides the impression of being more streamlined.

Panel Wall:

This wall stands between two supporting columns or pillars and is not load-bearing. The panel is fastened with nails and adhesive. Some of the design alternatives for panelling are rustic, boards, and frames. Panelling can be made from affordable pine or hardwoods. It is a good idea to paint the room before installing panel walls.


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