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Various Types of Footings in Building Construction

One of a building’s most crucial components, the footing is responsible for transferring loads from the structure to the soil beneath it. The choice of an appropriate form of footing is typically influenced by a number of variables, including the type of superstructure, the type of soil, and the depth of the soil at which safe-bearing layers exist.

Various Types of Footing used in Building Construction:

Strap Footing:

The price grows quickly the further apart the two columns supported by the combined footing are from one another. In these situations, the strap footing is a practical choice. In most cases, strap footings are used in conjunction with the columns of the adjacent land.

Strip Footing:

A combination footing known as a strip footing is required to support multiple columns in a row. It is utilised when a column’s row is closely spaced apart and their spread footings cross over. A continuous footing is another name for a strip footing. To convey the weight of a row of closely spaced columns to the ground, strip footings are applied.

Combined Footing:  

A combined footing is one that bears the weight of two or more columns. When two or more columns are close to one another or when the individual footings of two or more columns would overlap, it is adopted. The combined footing might have a rectangular or trapezoidal plan. When one column’s weight is heavier than the other, a trapezoidal footing is offered. To transfer the weight of closely spaced columns to the ground or when the columns face the plot boundary, combined footings are used.

Isolated Footing:

An isolated footing is one that bears the weight of a single column. This form of footing can have a slab and an isolated beam or it can be flat, stepped, sloped, etc. These footings are affordable where sufficient soil is available.

For a shallow foundation that will convey concentrated loads to the ground, isolated footings are used. 

Raft Footing:

The entire space beneath the structure is covered by this foundation. Only an RCC slab or a slab and beam together cover the entirety of this foundation. These footings are used when massive constructions need to be built on spongy artificial ground or marshy regions with unpredictable behaviour. Mat foundation is another name for raft foundation.

Sloped Footing:

These footings are referred to as sloped footings because they have sloping top or side faces. They are helpful in building formwork.

Stepped Footing:

The major goal of adopting stepped footing is to protect the metal columns from corrosion by keeping them out of direct contact with the earth. This kind of footing carries the weight of metal columns and transmits it underground.

Pile Footing:

Pile footings are used when the groundwater level is high or the soil’s bearing capability is limited. Pile construction is common for creating the base for structures like dams and bridges. Where the soil is very sparse and the groundwater table is higher, piles are utilised as deep foundations.

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